Stud Muffins

More than mere eye-candy, these fine specimens are potential suitors with real substance. Undeniably dark and handsome, it’s hard not to fall for their good looks even at a glance, but there’s so much more to love in each tempting crumb.

Want a partner who won’t insult your intelligence? These fellas are a smart choice, made of high-fiber coffee flour and bolstered by whole wheat, staying with you all morning when so many flaky pastries will let you down. Seeking a bit of adventure in the everyday? Subtly fruity, nutty, and lightly scented with rich cinnamon, each bite provided a flavorful departure from the typical breakfast baked good.

Prepare to meet your perfect match, at least when it comes to sweet muffin romance.

Coffee Flour Crumb Muffins

2 Cups White Whole Wheat Flour
1 Cup Coffee Flour
2 Teaspoons Baking Powder
1 Teaspoon Baking Soda
1 Teaspoon Ground Cinnamon
3/4 Teaspoon Salt
1 1/2 Cups Plain Non-Dairy Milk
1/2 Cup Dark Brown Sugar, Firmly Packed
1 Teaspoon Apple Cider Vinegar
1/2 Teaspoon Vanilla Extract
1/2 Cup Olive Oil
1/2 Cup Pitted and Chopped Dates
1/4 Cup Toasted and Chopped Pecans

Crumb Topping:

2 Tablespoons White Whole Wheat Flour
2 Tablespoons Coffee Flour
3 Tablespoons Dark Brown Sugar, Firmly Packed
2 Tablespoons Toasted and Chopped Pecans
1/4 Teaspoon Ground Cinnamon
1 1/2 Tablespoons Olive Oil

Preheat your oven to 350 degrees and lightly grease 12 muffin tins.

In a large bowl, sift the white whole wheat flour, coffee flour, baking powder and soda, cinnamon, and salt. Stir to combine and thoroughly distribute all of the dry goods throughout the mixture.

Separately, mix together the non-dairy milk of your choice, brown sugar, vinegar, and oil. Pour the liquids into the bowl of dry ingredients, stirring lightly just to bring the batter together. Add the dates and pecans last, folding them in gently. A few errant lumps in the dough are perfectly fine.

For the crumb topping, simply stir together all of the ingredients with a fork until the mixture clumps together in large pieces, approximately the size of peas.

Distribute the muffin batter between your prepared tins, mounding them generously towards the center. Sprinkle the crumb topping over each one as evenly and equally as possible.

Bake for 20 – 24 minutes, until a toothpick inserted into the center pulls out clean. Let cool completely before enjoying!

Makes 12 Muffins

Printable Recipe

All About That Hass

Morning, noon, or night, avocado toast always hits the spot. Something about the way a luscious, creamy slab of ripe avocado melts into a hot slice of burnished golden toast defies explanation, yielding a taste far greater than the sum of its parts. Dress it up with any variety of spices, seeds, fruits, or vegetables; there’s no way to go wrong with this universal foundation. That said, it’s hard to beat the original and I always crave even more avocado, piling it up as high as gravity will allow.

Seeking a new way to pack in even more of the rich green fruit, I turned to crafting a more perfect base. This bread gets its soft, tender crumb and vibrant hue from a buttery blend of both mashed avocado and avocado oil. It makes for brilliant sandwich bread as well, sliced thin and layered with sweet and savory fillings alike… But of course, I’d always opt to add more avocado whenever possible.

Yield: 1 Loaf; 8 - 10 Servings

Avocado Bread

Avocado Bread

This bread gets its soft, tender crumb and vibrant hue from a buttery blend of both mashed avocado and avocado oil. It makes for brilliant sandwich bread as well, sliced thin and layered with sweet and savory fillings alike… But of course, I’d always opt to add more avocado whenever possible.

Prep Time 25 minutes
Cook Time 50 minutes
Additional Time 1 hour 30 minutes
Total Time 2 hours 45 minutes

Ingredients

  • 1/4 Cup Warm Water (About 100˚F)
  • 1 Teaspoon Light Agave Nectar
  • 1 Packet (2 1/4 Teaspoons) Active Dry Yeast
  • 2 Large, Ripe Avocados (About 9 Ounces Total)
  • 1 Teaspoon Apple Cider Vinegar
  • 1/4 Cup Aquafaba
  • 2 Tablespoons Avocado Oil
  • 1 Teaspoon Salt
  • 3 – 3 1/2 Cups White Whole Wheat Flour

Instructions

  1. Combine the water and agave in a small bowl before sprinkling the yeast on top. Allow it to sit until the yeast is reactivated and bubbly; about 5 – 10 minutes.
  2. Transfer the yeast picture to the bowl of your stand mixer and add in the flesh of the avocados and apple cider vinegar. Using the paddle attachment, begin to mix on medium-low speed, mashing the avocado until completely smooth. Once homogeneous, introduce the aquafaba, avocado oil, and salt, mixing to incorporate.
  3. Add 3 cups of the flour and begin to mix slowly. Swap out the paddle attachment for the dough hook before adding in the remainder of the flour, if needed, to bring the dough together. Let the machine continue knead the dough for about 10 – 15 minutes on low speed, until the dough forms a smooth, elastic ball. It should be a rather soft dough, so don’t be tempted to add more flour.
  4. Place the dough in a lightly greased bowl, cover with plastic wrap, and leave at room temperature for about 1 hour or until doubled in volume.
  5. When the dough has risen, preheat your oven to 350˚F. Transfer the dough into a greased 8 ½ x 4 ½-inch baking pan and gently smooth out the top with lightly moistened hands. Let rest once more at room temperature for another 30 minutes.
  6. Bake 40 – 50 minutes, until golden brown all over and irresistibly aromatic. Let the finished loaf rest in the pan for 15 minutes before removing it to cool completely on a wire rack. Slice, savory, and enjoy!

Recommended Products

Please note that some of the links above are affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you decide to make a purchase after clicking through the link. I have experience with all of these companies and I recommend them because they are helpful and useful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to buy something through my links.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

10

Serving Size:

1

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 520Total Fat: 12gSaturated Fat: 2gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 9gCholesterol: 0mgSodium: 217mgCarbohydrates: 95gFiber: 16gSugar: 1gProtein: 18g

All nutritional information presented within this site are intended for informational purposes only. I am not a certified nutritionist and any nutritional information on BitterSweetBlog.com should only be used as a general guideline. This information is provided as a courtesy and there is no guarantee that the information will be completely accurate. Even though I try to provide accurate nutritional information to the best of my ability, these figures should still be considered estimations.

Great Grains

Farmers dutifully set up shop, week after week, hawking their fresh fare at the market no matter the conditions. A particularly stoic lot, they laugh in the face of adverse weather, forging ahead fearlessly where so many others would turn back. They find great bounty where most would see scarcity. Even during these lean, dark days of winter, life erupts from the soil in all rainbow hues, if only the rest of us would open our eyes wide enough to fully appreciate it.

While cravings for local berries are fierce at times, greater seasonal riches are available to quell that temptation. All it takes is a bit of care, pairing bright flavors with a range of textures, to satisfy while maximizing the available fresh produce.

Leaning more heavily on hearty cooked grains than frilly tender greens, this is a salad built to endure colder, less forgiving days. Toothsome, high-protein kamut, known in some circles as Khorasan wheat, is the backbone of this production here, another unsung hero that rarely garners the praise it truly deserves. Lest you write it off as just another one-dimensional side dish, consider the limitless possibilities it possesses for adaptation. Restorative and soothing when served warm, it’s just as satisfying prepared in advance and served chilled, for those unpredictable spikes in temperature as spring grows nearer. Transform it into a one-bowl main dish by tossing in cooked beans of any sort, and ramp up the rainbow of vegetables by adding thinly sliced radishes, shredded carrots, and/or diced avocado. Crowning the whole affair with a handful of crumbled vegan feta may be gilding the lily, but that small indulgence is the perfect foil to such a robust, no-nonsense foundation.

Having used this base as a starting point for countless culinary adventures already, I can vouch for all of these additions, but by no means are they your only options. Simply look to your local market with fresh eyes and see how many wonderful options still flourish and thrive, rather than the typical staples that may be absent. There’s still a wide world of flavor our there, ready to be discovered.

Yield: Makes 4 – 6 Servings

Kamut and Kale Salad

Kamut and Kale Salad

Toothsome, high-protein kamut, known in some circles as Khorasan wheat, is the backbone of this winter salad. Restorative and soothing when served warm, it’s just as satisfying prepared in advance and served chilled, for those unpredictable spikes in temperature as spring grows nearer. Transform it into a one-bowl main dish by tossing in cooked beans of any sort, and ramp up the rainbow of vegetables by adding thinly sliced radishes, shredded carrots, and/or diced avocado.

Prep Time 5 minutes
Cook Time 1 hour
Total Time 1 hour 5 minutes

Ingredients

Kamut and Kale Salad

  • 2 Cups Cooked Kamut*
  • 6 Ounces Kale, Shredded
  • 1/4 Red Onion, Thinly Sliced
  • 1/4 Cup Fresh Mint Leaves, Minced
  • 1 1/2 Cups Seedless Red Grapes, Halved
  • 1 Pound Red Beets, Cooked, Peeled, and Sliced
  • Vegan Feta (Optional)

Vinaigrette:

  • 2 Tablespoons Olive Oil
  • 1 Tablespoon Red Wine Vinegar
  • 1 Teaspoon Lemon Juice
  • 1 Teaspoon Dijon Mustard
  • 1/4 – 1/2 Teaspoon Salt

Instructions

  1. If you’d like to serve this salad warm or hot, begin assembly as soon as the kamut is fully cooked. Otherwise, chill the cooked grains for at least two hours before proceeding.
  2. Preparation is very straightforward, and I have a feeling you could probably figure it out just by looking at the list of ingredients. In any event, toss the cooked kamut, kale, onion, mint, grapes, and beets together in a large bowl. In a separate bowl, whisk together all oil, vinegar, lemon juice, and mustard, adding salt to taste. Pour the dressing over the vegetables and grains, mixing thoroughly to coat. Top with crumbled vegan feta, if desired. Enjoy!

Notes

*To cook kamut, I typically use the pasta method, which means adding about a cup or so of grains to a generous measure of water; at least 4 or 5 cups. Bring to a boil and then reduce the heat to a simmer. Cook for 45 – 60 minutes until the grains are tender but still toothsome, and drain off the excess water. This ensure the perfect texture every time without the threat of having anything stick and burn on the bottom of the pot. Measure out what you need for the recipe and store any extra in an airtight container in the fridge for up to a week.

Recommended Products

Please note that some of the links above are affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you decide to make a purchase after clicking through the link. I have experience with all of these companies and I recommend them because they are helpful and useful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to buy something through my links.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

6

Serving Size:

1

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 198Total Fat: 6gSaturated Fat: 1gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 4gCholesterol: 4mgSodium: 401mgCarbohydrates: 33gFiber: 5gSugar: 14gProtein: 6g

All nutritional information presented within this site are intended for informational purposes only. I am not a certified nutritionist and any nutritional information on BitterSweetBlog.com should only be used as a general guideline. This information is provided as a courtesy and there is no guarantee that the information will be completely accurate. Even though I try to provide accurate nutritional information to the best of my ability, these figures should still be considered estimates.

Freekeh Friday

What’s ancient is new again, at least when it comes to whole grains. Freekeh, the latest superfood darling, has made a splash in the culinary scene, appearing on diverse menus that span cuisines to suit all tastes. It’s been around since biblical times, rooted in traditional Middle Eastern and North African cooking, but has recently reinvented itself as the latest nutritional superstar of North America. Even those immune to food trends should take note of this vital ingredient, bearing volumes of flavor and potential to enliven just about any grain dish.

What is freekeh?

Also referred to as “green wheat” or “young wheat,” it may come as a surprise that this distinctive grain is really the same old cereal we know and love, but treated in a different way. Harvested early while still moist and plump, the kernels are then roasted and frequently cracked, giving them the appearance of bulgur. The similarities end there, made obvious at first bite. Toothsome and chewy, the texture alone is utterly crave-worthy, but the woodsy, nutty, toasted taste and aroma truly seal the deal.

Does that sound ordinary to you, pedestrian even, in the face of so many exotic grain options? It did to me, for years resonating as little more than a silly name, but all that will change with your first spoonful. Trust me, eating is believing; I don’t usually cook up big batches of plain grains, but even without a single pinch of salt or pepper, I couldn’t get enough of the stuff.

Despite devouring a heaping helping of plain freekeh all by its lonesome, I knew there was even more hidden potential locked within those broken kernels. Starting with such a perfect blank canvas, it didn’t take much to coax that untapped inspiration out of hiding.

Of course, I couldn’t resist a good pun, either. With a name like “freekeh,” the possibilities are ripe with witty opportunities. Dirty freekeh, a riff on standard dirty rice, brings so much more than another boring side dish to the party. It sings with spices, bursts with fresh vegetables at every turn, and supports a healthy dose of vegan protein within a hearty grain base. If anything, it’s more like a clean rendition of dirty rice, forgoing the livers and gibbets in favor of tempeh, a swap that even staunch omnivores might appreciate.

What’s a good substitute for freekeh?

Even if you can’t get your hands on those rarefied bags of cracked freekeh, any grain can be made dirty, so to speak. Just substitute 3 cups of your favorite cooked and cooled whole grains, such as quinoa, barley, farro, or of course, rice.

Yield: Makes 4 - 6 Servings

Dirty Freekeh

Dirty Freekeh

Dirty freekeh, a riff on standard dirty rice, brings so much more than another boring side dish to the party. It sings with spices, bursts with fresh vegetables at every turn, and supports a healthy dose of vegan protein within a hearty grain base. If anything, it’s more like a clean rendition of dirty rice, forgoing the livers and gibbets in favor of tempeh, a swap that even staunch omnivores might appreciate.

Prep Time 5 minutes
Cook Time 15 minutes
Total Time 5 minutes

Ingredients

  • 2 Tablespoons Olive Oil, Divided
  • 1 8-Ounce Package Tempeh, Diced
  • 1/2 Cup Minced Button Mushrooms
  • 1 Medium Yellow Onion, Finely Chopped
  • 3 Large Garlic Cloves, Minced
  • 2 Celery Stalks, Diced
  • 1 Jalapeño Pepper, Seeded and Finely Chopped
  • 1/2 Medium Red Bell Pepper
  • 1 Cup Mushroom Broth
  • 3 Cups Cooked Cracked Freekeh (From 1 Cup Raw)
  • 1 Teaspoon Smoked Paprika
  • 1/2 Teaspoon Ground Cumin
  • 1/4 Teaspoon Dried Oregano
  • 1/4 Teaspoon Ground Black Pepper
  • 6 Scallions, Thinly Sliced
  • 3 Tablespoon Fresh Parsley, Minced
  • 1 - 1 1/2 Teaspoons Salt

Instructions

  1. Place 1 tablespoon of the oil in a large saucepan over medium-high heat and wait until it start shimmering. Add in the tempeh and saute, searing the outsides to a crispy golden brown. Stir gently so that you don’t break the cubes into smaller pieces. Once evenly browned on all sides, transfer to a plate and return the pan to the stove.
  2. Pour in the remaining tablespoon of oil, turn down the heat to medium, and toss in the mushrooms, onion, and garlic. Cook for 6 – 8 minutes, until aromatic, before introducing the celery, Jalapeño, and bell pepper as well. Stir frequently, sauteing until all the vegetables have softened and are just beginning to lightly brown around the edges.
  3. Quickly deglaze with the mushroom broth, scraping the bottom of the pan thoroughly to dislodge anything that might have stuck, preventing the goodies from burning. Introduce the cooked freekeh along with all the spices. Stir well to incorporate and distribute the vegetables throughout.
  4. Turn down the heat to medium-low, allowing the mixture to cook gently until all of the broth has been absorbed. It should still be moist, but not soupy. Turn off the heat, add the cooked, crispy tempeh and fresh herbs into the freekeh.
  5. Finally, season to taste, and don’t be afraid to get a bit aggressive with the salt to bring out the most flavor. It may look like a lot on paper, but it’s a whole lot of freekeh we’re talking about!
  6. Serve hot, or let cool, chill thoroughly, and enjoy as a cold grain salad later.

Recommended Products

Please note that some of the links above are affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you decide to make a purchase after clicking through the link. I have experience with all of these companies and I recommend them because they are helpful and useful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to buy something through my links.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

6

Serving Size:

1

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 242Total Fat: 9gSaturated Fat: 2gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 7gCholesterol: 0mgSodium: 667mgCarbohydrates: 31gFiber: 7gSugar: 3gProtein: 13g

All nutritional information presented within this site are intended for informational purposes only. I am not a certified nutritionist and any nutritional information on BitterSweetBlog.com should only be used as a general guideline. This information is provided as a courtesy and there is no guarantee that the information will be completely accurate. Even though I try to provide accurate nutritional information to the best of my ability, these figures should still be considered estimations.

Worth its Weight in Gold [Bricks]

Dark as a solid block of dried molasses and boasting a density that could very well rival lead, vollkornbrot is one serious baked good. As I’ve affectionately nicknamed this loaf “brick bread,” it’s no secret that the texture is entirely different from the standard soft, fluffy American sandwich loaf or crusty French baguette. Not a forgettable filler or bland vehicle for jams or spreads, no sir, this German bread means business. Though easily obtained in most health food stores under the guise of “fitness bread,” shrink-wrapped and alarmingly shelf-stable, those flimsy slices can’t compare to the fresh stuff.

Thickly built on whole grains, and often nuts and seeds, each bite is a whole new textural experience. In fact, the traditional loaves don’t employ the use of any flour at all, employing only cooked wheat, spelt, or rye berries to hold them together. Variably crunchy and chewy, a proper vollkornbrot won’t break teeth, contrary to how some models may appear, but they certainly won’t dissolve into insubstantial fluff on the tongue. Think of each slice as a portable bowl of hot whole grain cereal, perfect for topping with any sweet or savory spread desired. So hearty and filling that just one small piece could power you through a grueling morning’s work, this is solid fuel indeed.

Not convinced yet? Try slicing it thin and assembling some dainty open-faced tea sandwiches. The contrast of that wholesome, grainy melange with light, crunchy cucumbers combines to create a divine little snack. Nothing if not versatile, my preconceived concept of brick bread” has been utterly and totally cast aside thanks to this beauty- Even if my own approach may be far from traditional.

Yield: Makes 1 Loaf; 8 - 10 Slices

Brick Bread (Faux-Vollkornbrot)

Brick Bread (Faux-Vollkornbrot)

Thickly built on whole grains and sprouted beans, each bite is a whole new textural experience. Think of each slice as a portable bowl of hot whole grain cereal, perfect for topping with any sweet or savory spread desired.

Prep Time 15 minutes
Cook Time 45 minutes
Additional Time 1 day 4 hours
Total Time 1 day 5 hours

Ingredients

Starter:

  • 3/4 Cup Hard Red Wheat Berries
  • 3/4 Cup Water
  • 1 Tablespoon Apple Cider Vinegar

Second Addition:

  • 3/4 Cup Steel-Cut Oat Groats
  • 3/4 Cup Water
  • 1 Teaspoon Yeast

Final Dough:

  • 1/3 Cup Sprouted Adzuki Beans
  • 2 Cups White Whole Wheat Flour
  • 1/4 Teaspoon Salt

Instructions

  1. It’s a somewhat long process to make this bread, so above all else, you must have an ample supply of patience on hand! I highly recommend reading the recipe all the way though so you know what kind of process is involved.
  2. First, mix together the ingredients for the starter in a large bowl, cover with plastic wrap, and let sit in a warm place for a full 24 hours.
  3. Once that time has elapsed, add in the “second addition” ingredients, mix well, and let sit for another 3 hours before proceeding.
  4. Finally, you can add in everything called for in the “final dough.” This is where my bread greatly diverges from traditional recipes. I use flour to hold everything together, because it seemed like that mass of grains would never create a solid loaf otherwise. Mix well, and kneed for 10 – 15 minutes to activate the gluten. Once smooth and elastic, roll the dough into a log and gently place it into a lightly greased 8 x 4-inch loaf pan. Let rise for about 1 hour before preheating the oven to 375 degrees.
  5. Bake for about 45 minutes, until the crust is evenly amber brown. If it seems to be browning too quickly, you can tent a piece of foil over the top of the loaf pan. Let cool on a wire rack completely before slicing.

Recommended Products

Please note that some of the links above are affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you decide to make a purchase after clicking through the link. I have experience with all of these companies and I recommend them because they are helpful and useful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to buy something through my links.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

10

Serving Size:

1

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 162Total Fat: 1gSaturated Fat: 0gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 1gCholesterol: 0mgSodium: 57mgCarbohydrates: 34gFiber: 6gSugar: 1gProtein: 7g

All nutritional information presented within this site are intended for informational purposes only. I am not a certified nutritionist and any nutritional information on BitterSweetBlog.com should only be used as a general guideline. This information is provided as a courtesy and there is no guarantee that the information will be completely accurate. Even though I try to provide accurate nutritional information to the best of my ability, these figures should still be considered estimations.

 

Simplicity in Salad-Form

Unlike some vegans who feel compelled to go against the age-old stereotype that herbivores subsist entirely on twigs and leaves, I’m not afraid to say that I love salads.  Think what you may, but in my eyes, a “salad” can be just about anything, and rarely involves lettuce when I’m in charge. 

Truly, how would this most basic and yet complex term be defined?  Anything chilled and mixed with a dressing?  Think about fruit salad- A sweet twist on the concept that everyone should be quite familiar with.  And then there are bean salads, grain salads, and some bewildering “salads” from down south that involve mayo, pineapple, and bacon. 

They don’t always make sense, they aren’t always healthy, and I certainly don’t endorse them across the board, but it pains me to think that most people still imagine a sad bowl of limp, pale iceberg and maybe some tired old tomato wedges when I say the word “salad.”

On that note, I have come bearing salad, but not one of those obligatory, unwanted side salads that must be choked down in order to get to dessert.  This salad here is comprised mainly of toothsome barley, making it a more wholesome interpretation of pasta salad, in a sense.  Fresh, sweet peas take advantage of the season’s bounty, although frozen and thawed can absolutely work in a pinch. Add in a generous glug of vinegar for a pleasant acidic bite, a handful of chives, and you’re practically done.

Simple almost to the point of brainlessly easy, it’s the perfect quick dish for a hot summer day, or lazy picnic any time.  Just pack it up into little jars, and you’re good to go.  It keeps well, both refrigerated and not, so you don’t have to worry about it spoiling while you go play outside.

Yield: Serves 4 – 6 as a Side Dish

Barley and Fresh Pea Salad

Barley and Fresh Pea Salad

This salad here is comprised mainly of toothsome barley, making it a more wholesome interpretation of pasta salad, in a sense. Fresh, sweet peas take advantage of the season’s bounty, although frozen and thawed can absolutely work in a pinch. Add in a generous glug of vinegar for a pleasant acidic bite, a handful of chives, and you’re practically done.

Prep Time 2 minutes
Total Time 2 minutes

Ingredients

Instructions

  1. A salad like this hardly needs instructions, but here goes: Toss the cooked barley and peas in a bowl, crumble in the “feta,” drizzle in both vinegars and oil. Add the chopped herbs and toss well. Taste, and add salt and pepper as desired. Serve immediately, or cover and chill for up to three days.

Recommended Products

Please note that some of the links above are affiliate links, and at no additional cost to you, I will earn a commission if you decide to make a purchase after clicking through the link. I have experience with all of these companies and I recommend them because they are helpful and useful, not because of the small commissions I make if you decide to buy something through my links.

Nutrition Information:

Yield:

6

Serving Size:

1

Amount Per Serving: Calories: 147Total Fat: 6gSaturated Fat: 2gTrans Fat: 0gUnsaturated Fat: 3gCholesterol: 13mgSodium: 183mgCarbohydrates: 20gFiber: 4gSugar: 2gProtein: 5g

All nutritional information presented within this site are intended for informational purposes only. I am not a certified nutritionist and any nutritional information on BitterSweetBlog.com should only be used as a general guideline. This information is provided as a courtesy and there is no guarantee that the information will be completely accurate. Even though I try to provide accurate nutritional information to the best of my ability, these figures should still be considered estimates.